Antimanic, antidepressant, and antipanic effects of opiates: clinical, neuroanatomical, and biochemical evidence
Gold MS, Pottash AC, Sweeney D, Martin D, Extein I
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1982; 398:140-50


These clinical data may offer some support for the hypothesis that opiates have antidepressant, antimanic, and antipanic effects. This hypothesis should be studied directly by double-blind studies of the effects of exogenous and synthetic endogenous opioid peptides in patients with major depressive illness, panic and anxiety states, schizophrenia, and schizo-affective illness. These clinical data support our studies in nonhuman primates and man which suggest a common LC or NE hyperactivity may underly both drug withdrawal and spontaneous panic states. Whether endorphin deficiency or derangements account for the postulated NE hyperactivity needs additional study and we will discuss our preliminary work later. Failure of endorphins to terminate bursts in LC firing rate and NE release may be responsible for both of these types of panic states. In addicts, this mechanism could exist prior to opiate use, or abuse of potent exogenous endorphinomentic compound may cause an endorphin-abnormality. Both of these possibilities would be compensated by continuous opiate maintenance. Methadone maintenance is a complicated psychiatric, psychological, and social phenomenon. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of opiate maintenance in treating or suppressing the emergence of underlying psychopathology. Previous psychiatric hospitalization or treatment for a schizophrenic or affective illness may contraindicate absolutely the use of clonidine or other rapid detoxification methods. These data suggest the possibility of substituting a nonaddicting psychotropic medication for opiates in some patients who are self-medicators. The clinical data support other data suggesting the potential antipsychotic, antidepressant, and antianxiety/antipanic effects of the endogenous opioids, endorphins, and exogenous opioids, endorphins, and exogenous opiates. These and other data suggest potential utility for opioid agonists and endorphin testing in psychiatric treatment and diagnosis.
Receptor subtypes
Opiates in psychiatry
Opioids and depression
Opioid receptor migration
Depression, opioids and the HPA
Methadone maintenance/subliminal euphoria

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family