Endomorphins as agents for the treatment
of chronic inflammatory disease

Jessop DS.
Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative
Neuroscience and Endocrinology, LINE,
University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
BioDrugs. 2006;20(3):161-6.


Endomorphin (EM)-1 and EM-2 are tetrapeptides located within the mammalian central nervous system and immune tissues, with high affinity and specificity for micro-opioid receptors. Most of the literature has focused on the analgesic properties of EM-1 and EM-2 in animal models of neuropathic or neurogenic pain, but there is persuasive evidence emerging that EMs can also exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in both acute and chronic peripheral inflammation. The purpose of this review is to present and evaluate the evidence for anti-inflammatory properties of EM-1 and EM-2 with a view to their potential for use in chronic human inflammatory disease. Distribution of EMs within the immune system and functional roles as immunomodulatory agents are summarized and discussed. Possible milestones to be met revolve around issues of peptide stability, biodegradability problems and optimal route and method of delivery. The potential for delivery of a low-cost drug with both peripheral anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, effective in low doses, and targeted to the site of inflammation, should focus our attention on further development of EMs as potent therapeutic agents in chronic inflammation.
Endomorphins 1 and 2
Endomorphins and the mouse
The rewards of endomorphin 1
Endomorphins and rodent brains
Endomorphin-1 loaded nanoparticles
Endomorphin 1, dopamine and nitric oxide
Endomorphin-1, accumbal dopamine and the mu-opioid receptor

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family