The case of Dr. Shipman
Pounder DJ.
Department of Forensic Medicine,
University of Dundee,
Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2003 Sep;24(3):219-26


On January 31, 2000, Dr. Harold Shipman was convicted at Preston, England, of murdering 15 of his patients by administering lethal doses of diamorphine (pharmaceutical heroin). Investigations indicate that, during his working life, he killed about 220 to 240 of his patients. The bodies of many victims were cremated. Twelve victims were exhumed, and 9 of these deaths were included in the indictment. Most victims were elderly and had histories of natural disease. Autopsies confirmed known natural disease but showed no evidence of acute lethal events. Analysis of skeletal muscle disclosed significant quantities of morphine, to which the deaths were attributed. Circumstantial evidence was strong, as illustrated by the convictions in 6 deaths without autopsy or toxicology, because the bodies had been cremated. Organic compounds are remarkably stable in buried bodies. Even so, detection and quantitation of morphine in exhumed bodies may become problematic after burial for 4 years or more. Morphine glucuronide is slowly converted back to free morphine in the buried corpse.
The "rush"
Heroin Inc
Dutch heroin
Heinrich Dreser
Heroin in Vienna
Monkeys on heroin
Intravenous heroin
Heroin and nitric oxide
Heroin versus morphine
The extended amygdala
The prescription for heroin
Heroin, GABAA and the NAcc
Heroin: A Drug Fit For Heroes?
Baclofen, dopamine and heroin
Dosage, route of administration and withdrawal

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family