kappa-Opioid tolerance and dependence
in cultures of dopaminergic midbrain neurons

Dalman FC, O'Malley KL
Department of Anesthesiology,
Washington University School of Medicine,
St. Louis,
Missouri 63110, USA.
J Neurosci 1999 Jul 15; 19(14):5750-7


Repeated cocaine exposure upregulates kappa opioids and their receptors in the mesocorticolimbic system; the ensuing kappa-mediated dysphoria appears to contribute to addiction and withdrawal. As a potential rehabilitation strategy to reverse cocaine-induced kappa sensitization, the present study used tritiated dopamine release assays to examine the induction of kappa-opioid tolerance in cultured mesencephalic neurons. Administration of the kappa agonist U69,593 inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive, spontaneous (EC(50) = 1.5 nM), and potassium-stimulated (EC(50) = 10 nM) release. These effects were blocked by pertussis toxin and by the kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. The 2 d agonist exposure (1 microM) caused a shift in the U69,593 dose-response curve that was greater in the potassium-stimulated paradigm (140-fold) than in the spontaneous release assay (sixfold). These results were attributable to the attenuation of kappa-receptor signaling mechanisms and to dependence. In the stimulated release assay, attenuation of kappa signaling caused by 4 hr of U69,593 exposure recovered with a half-life of 1.1 hr, whereas attenuation after 144 hr of exposure recovered slowly (t(1/2) = 20 hr). In the spontaneous release assay, attenuation of kappa-opioid signaling occurred slowly (t(1/2) = 22 hr), and resensitization after a 144 hr exposure was rapid (t(1/2) < 1 hr). kappa-Opioid dependence was observed after 144 hr of U69,593 exposure. Thus multiple mechanisms of adaptation to kappa-opioid exposure occur in mesocorticolimbic neurons. These data support the idea that the administration of kappa opioids might facilitate drug rehabilitation.
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Rapid opioid detoxification
Butorphanol versus morphine
Kappa receptors, dopamine d3, and cocaine
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Kappa opioids selectively control dopaminergic neurons
Depressive effects of the kappa-opioid receptor agonists
Kappa opioid antagonists as antidepressants : norbinaltorphimine
JDTic: an antidepressant, anxiolytic kappa-selective opioid receptor antagonist

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