image of the Greek physician Hippocrates
The Greek physician Hippocrates (c460 - c377 BC) discounts belief in the literally magical attributes of opium, an indication perhaps of the high reputation of the opium poppy in classical antiquity. Like his successor Galen of Pergamum, Hippocrates readily acknowledges the benefits of opium poppy juice as a narcotic and styptic in treating internal diseases, diseases of women and epidemics. Hippocrates also notes the excellent nutritive properties of the poppy seed. Opium poppy seeds are very popular with birds, though their effects on avian consciousness are unknown.

Candace Pert
Opium People
George Crabbe
Opium Timeline
Heinrich Dreser
Marcus Aurelius
The Plant of Joy
The SuperPoppy
Solomon Snyder
Wilhelm Sertürner
Charles Baudelaire
Thomas de Quincey
William S Burroughs
Into the Arms of Morpheus
Snapshots: Opium in History

The Good Drug Guide