Postoperative opiate analgesia
requirements of smokers and nonsmokers

Creekmore FM, Lugo RA, Weiland KJ.
College of Pharmacy,
University of Utah,
30 S. 2000 East, Room 258,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-5820, USA.
Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Jun;38(6):949-53


BACKGROUND: Smoking cigarettes and other forms of nicotine administration appear to blunt the perception of pain. Abrupt discontinuation of nicotine in nicotine-dependent patients appears to increase the perception of pain. The clinical importance of nicotine's effect on pain perception is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether smokers who abruptly discontinue smoking as a result of being hospitalized for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) require more postoperative opiate analgesics than nonsmokers. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent a CABG was performed. Smokers (n = 20) were compared with nonsmokers (n = 69) with regard to opiate analgesic use during the first 48 hours postoperatively. The use of nonopiate sedatives was also compared between the groups. RESULTS: When normalized for weight and body mass index, smokers required 23% and 33%, respectively, more opiate analgesics than did nonsmokers (p = 0.027 and 0.023, respectively). The percentage of patients who received benzodiazepines postoperatively was similar in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, smokers deprived of nicotine required a greater amount of opiates in the first 48 hours after CABG than did nonsmokers. Healthcare providers need to be aware of the potential for increased narcotic requirements among nicotine-deprived smokers. Further study is needed to determine whether nicotine replacement lessens the requirement for postoperative analgesics in smokers.
Opium timeline
Opioid receptors
The Pleasures of Opium
Opioids and anaesthesia

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family