Recent evidences in the pharmacological
mechanisms of the tramadol

Mimami K.
Department of Anesthesiology,
University of Occupational and Environmental Health,
Kitakyushu 807 8555.
Masui. 2005 Nov;54(11):1224-33.


Tramadol [(1R, 2R) and (1S, 2S)-2-dimethyl-amino-methyl-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) -cyclohexanol hydrochloride] has been used clinically. It binds to micro-opioid receptors with lower affinity than morphine, which suggests that the antinociceptive action of tramadol may not be due to opioid receptor binding. Several lines of evidence have shown that tramadol inhibits the reuptake of monoamines, as do antidepressant drugs such as desipramine. Tramadol inhibits the reuptake of NE and serotonin. The mechanisms of action of tramadol have not been well understood. Recently, some evidences in the mechanisms of action of tramadol have been published. Tramadol inhibits the muscarinic receptor, serotonin receptor, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ion-channel, suggesting these receptors might be related to the mechanisms of action of tramadol. In this review, the mechanisms of action of tramadol were reviewed form these findings. Tramadol does not alter renal blood flow (RBF) in normal rats. This suggests that tramadol would be a safe analgesic maintaining RBF during the postoperative period. It would be necessary to study the effects of tramadol on orphan G-ptotein coupled receptor which is related to the pain.
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Tramadol and osteoarthritis
Tramadol for neuropathic pain
Tramadol as an antidepressant
Discriminative stimulus effects
Tramadol: risk/benefit analysis
Tramadol versus buprenorphine
Tramadol, morphine and the mouse

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